Reference style guide

Why reference?

If you use somebody else’s words, or their unique concepts, or their frameworks, you may not pretend that the work is yours. You have to respect the original author by referring to their work. Failing to give credit to an author is called plagiarism and it may disqualify all your hard work! So always cite/reference the source.

Even when you have read and understood what an author has written, and you are capable of putting it in your own words, you may still need to reference the original author.

Harvard style

There are many styles of referencing. By far the easiest is called the Harvard style of reference, also called the Author/Date referencing style.

For a comprehensive guide, you can consult the UCT Guide. For problematic references, ask your tutor, or your eLibrarian, Anna Weideman (anna@hermanusvarsity.co.za)

Two locations

In academic writing, we have:
1. In-text references; and
2. References at the end of your assignment;
also sometimes referred to as a Bibliography. The references are listed strictly in alphabetical order.

As we alert you to relevant reading material, we will sometimes tell you how to cite it. Some examples are given below. Other examples are given on different pages on this website. Feel free to ask about problematic references – they can sometimes be tricky!

Books

REFERENCES / BIBLIOGRAPHY

Method:
Author. Publication Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher

Example:
Lochner, H. 2014. Taking effective witness statements. Cape Town: Juta.

IN TEXT CITATION

Method:
Surname of author (Year of publication: page numbers) what the author said.

Example:
Lochner (2014: 84-87) lists five principles of a good statement.

Articles/Papers

REFERENCES / BIBLIOGRAPHY

Method:
Author. Date. Title of the article. Title of the Journal. Vol. number (issue number): page numbers.

Example:
Haenlein, C. 2017. Below the surface: How illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing threatens our security. RUSI Occasional Papers, July: i-44.

IN TEXT CITATION

Method:
Author (date: page number)

Example:
Haenlein (2017: 28) states that “The use of fishing vessels in drug-trafficking operations does not appear to be exceptional.”.

Videos

REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Method:
Username of the person posting the video. Year video posted. Title of video. [Online video] Available: URL. [Accessed: date.]
Example:
Nelson Mandela University. 2017. Nelson Mandela University’s FishFORCE launch – SABC feature. [Online video] Available: https://youtu.be/desc342D15w [Accessed: 25 Feb. 2020]

IN-TEXT CITATION

In this video (Nelson Mandela University 2017) …

Internet publication

REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Method:
Author. Publication year. Title. Available: URL [Accessed: 7 Oct. 1019]

Example:
World Economic Forum. 2018. The Future of Jobs Report. Available: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs_2018.pdf [Accessed: 7 October 2019] 

IN-TEXT REFERENCE

Example:
The Fourth Industrial Revolution will result in major disruptions to labour markets (World Economic Forum 2018)..